Is it possible to configure Messages for Mac in such a way that it receives text messages sent to my mobile phone number?
Currently on the Mac I can receive only messages sent to my Apple ID, but on my iPhone I can receive messages sent to both.
In iOS 6, your phone number and your Apple ID will be unified, so when you'll receive a iMessage or a Facetime call, they will appear on all your devices (iOS and Mac OS).
More info here.
So I think you just need to wait until this fall to resolve your problem !