What you are seeing here is completely expected with a locked-down wireless network which requires authentication. A well-designed captive portal keeps you from accessing the internet for a very good reason - security - and this is obvious because you need credentials to authenticate to this University's user directory through the portal. This is also borne out by the fact that you can only access the University's internal web-site/network without credentials.
I'm not trying to cast aspersions on your ethics or motivation, but without more information it does appear as if you are trying to hack past this portal authentication page without proper credentials. You neglect to mention that you have successfully authenticate to the captive portal on a regular basis and you do not indicate that this portal authentication login page is spurious and unexpected.
If you are trying to hack past the authentication, then you may be opening yourself up to legal prosecution if you are caught, successful or not.
Again - your motivation to get past the portal seems suspect without further information.
On the other hand, if you are not trying to hack the portal, perhaps a Tech Support request to the University's IT staff is in order. You may not be the only one trying to get to the blocked site.
No flames please. Just doing a bit of 'due diligence' for the greater good. Please don't use this site to get information on how to break the law.