If SATA channel 1 (used by the hard drive) is damaged, could it be that SATA channel 2 (used by the SuperDrive) is fine?
I would like to know if I can use a hard drive on the SuperDrive channel even though the hard disk channel is damaged.
It has two and yes, you can make the controller that connects to the SuperDrive spot the primary controller and run your MacBook Pro exclusively off a drive attached to this controller.
I'm writing this from a MacBook Pro that has an SSD installed into the SuperDrive spot using an OWC DataDoubler bracket. This is the primary drive in my machine and the mechanical drive has come and gone from the machine without any issues. The machine still booted, ran from my SSD in the SuperDrive spot.
I'm not sure if its the same kind of SATA controller, but Other World Computing sells something they call the Data Doubler for certain types of Macs. It's a drive bracket that sits in the SuperDrive slot and supplies a second 2.5" drive bay using the SuperDrive's interface.
The bracket contains a small ICB, but I'm not sure if it's converting anything to the standard SATA interface or going straight through. In either case, you would need something to mount your new drive in--it's probably not practical to route the second channel to the first drive bay since everything inside the case is designed so compactly.