There is no way to trace your MacBook Pro if the thief does not connect it to the internet, because at the very least the MBP needs to 'dial in' to announce it's location.
Since you did not enable "Find my Mac" and did not install any other recovery software, you might want to check in with some other services installed on your MBP.
Dropbox for example shows the last connected IP address for any given device you linked to your Dropbox account. If you use Dropbox, force a sync by making a change in your Dropbox folder. If the thief connects to the internet and Dropbox syncs the changes, you'll know the IP address he was connecting from. You can find this information on the Dropbox website, in your account settings.
Gmail is another popular service that allows you to see recently connected IP addresses. If you set up a Gmail account in Mail.app for example, you might want to check this information. You can find a link on the bottom right of your Inbox page.
Have a look at all possible cloud-based services you installed on the MBP, possibly others allow viewing a list of recently connected IP addresses as well.
However, if the thief does never connect to the internet, this will not help you either. There is also a possibility the thief reinstalls the OS from scratch to prevent the MBP from dialing in.