Apple has a short article explaining how support works - in the section on half way down is this section on how Apple's 1 year policy is in addition to any consumer laws in the place of purchase and not instead of those laws.
Here is the relevant section pretty much verbatim from the above link separated by horizontal bars (so I can editorialize some more at the end):
Apple 1 year limited warranty and AppleCare Protection Plan benefits are in addition to rights provided by consumer law. For details click here.
If you think you have a valid consumer law claim, please contact us.
So, basically they have written some web pages detailing many specific policies as well as providing in country phone numbers (which are the main support numbers as far as I can tell) to request coverage as needed. Once you know where to look, Apple seems to be making intentional efforts in adhering to consumer protection laws where it does business.
In a nutshell, the EU protection covers defects present at the time of delivery and in the majority of cases, the responsibility of proving the defect existed at delivery falls on the consumer if you don't report the issue within 6 months of purchase. Also, the "EU Warranty" is requested by contacting the seller directly. The Apple 1 year warranty covers defects arising anytime during the first year of ownership and you can contact Apple directly for service rather than having to go to the seller.