I know on iPad you can press and hold the new tab button to re-open recently closed tabs, but is there any similar functionality on an iPod/iPhone?
Hate to provide what is effectively a 1 word answer, but no.
Because iPhone Safari does not use tabs, the shortcut/gesture is missing. Going into the '
You may have more luck with a 3rd party browser if it's an important bit of functionality to have.
You cannot reopen the last closed page Safari iOS iPhone/iPod directly.
But you can still use the history to retrieve recently visited pages.