I am getting a problem with fonts on my machine sometimes showing as Chinese/Japanese characters (I'm not sure which).
This happens in many apps, although the ones where it is easily reproducable include Pages '09 (Mac App Store version):
And in the "Type your password to confirm" dialogue box when installing applications:
I am running OS X 10.7.2 on a 27-inch, Mid 2011 iMac. I do not use any "Font management" apps although I've installed a few fonts from Font Squirrel in the past.
(I could not embed the images because I have no reputation on this site).