I have enabled iCloud for my iPod touch and enabled Calendar sync, but my calendar events aren't showing up in iCloud when I login, even after I've manually backed it up to iCloud. What's the problem?
I had a similar problem with an iPad Calendar that wouldn't sync with [e.g., appear on] my other devices.
I found this link helpful:
In my case, I turned off iCloud Calendar syncing on the iPad [in iCloud settings]. I then chose to keep the Calendar data on the iPad rather than delete it.
Next, I turned iCloud Calendar syncing back on in iCloud settings, chose Merge, and bingo, everything appeared everywhere.
Hope this helps.