A friend wants to sync his calendar (also his contacts if possible) with a non-iPhone device.
Is there a way to connect a device to iCloud via Exchange or CalDav. If so where could the specific parameters like servers and ports be found?
I have a way to do this that may help your friend. My setup does what you're describing.
I use Microsoft Exchange for work and Gmail for everything else. I sync my iCal with Google calendar, Addressbook with Google contacts and use mail.app for all emails. I use 4 devices and all of them have the same contacts and calendar information.
Since Addressbook and iCal have my current information, any non-iPhone device with access to Google calendar and contacts could use what I have on my Macs. The non-iPhone device will need to be capable of syncing with Google calendar and contacts and most apps today have that functionality.
I also have a Comcast account that meshes fine with this setup since mail.app uses Addressbook and iCal instead of Comcast's contacts and calendar. I sync everything by using the sync icon in the menu bar several times a week. My setup includes an iPhone, iPad, Imac and MBP.
I'm researching iCloud to backup my Addressbook and contacts as well but I'm not in a rush since this setup performed reliably for the last 4 years.