I just received a new Mac, shipping with Lion. There is no install CD or DVD. Where is Xcode ? Do I have to use the App Store and create an Apple ID to get it? What about X11 ?
Correct. Xcode is only available via the App Store to non developers here. Registering an Apple ID is free and any email address can be used.
Alternatively, if you are a registered developer you can download the DMG from the Developer site here*
X11 is still a standard part of the Lion installation.
Also, note when registering an Apple ID for the App Store you are not required to provide credit card details as seen below. The option for none is available.
* Developer Account Required
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Indeed, you now need a credit card to get access to the App store. As of Dec 5, 2011, I see no "None" option. Either it has changed recently, or it depends on your IP's geographic location. Changing the "billing country" does change a few payment options, but after trying a few different countries, including the US, there is still no possibility to continue without a CC or equivalent service.
However, if you have an ID giving you access to https://developer.apple.com/downloads/, you can search for Xcode there. I was able to download xcode_4.2.1_for_lion.dmg with my free Apple ID without updating it to add a credit card.
I hope this is not a "loophole" they will quickly "fix"!
Also note that this "installer" is at least as misleading as the one from the App store. After you have downloaded and opened the usual .dmg file, you see the expected .pkg file: "InstallXcodeLion.pkg". But after you have done the full standard install of that .pkg, nothing is actually installed! You only "installed" the real installer: "/Applications/Install Xcode.app".