Do I need to be a member of iOS Developers program to develop and install an app on my iPad ?
Or can I just run Xcode and specify the device on which to install it ?
Without being a member, you can only run your app in the simulator. You must be a paid member to be able to install the app on a device.
With the upcoming Xcode 7 it's now possible to install apps on your devices without an apple developer license:
Quoted from: https://developer.apple.com/xcode/
You can do it if the iPad is Jailbroken. But that means you have to Jailbreak your device and the app may not work on non jailbroken devices, as you cannot test in the live enviroment.
If you join the dev programme you will get the beta downloads of iOS as well as being able to submit to the app store.
My advice would be, if you want to hang onto your cash for a while longer, develop the app, test it in the simulator that comes from downloading xCode, and once you are happy with it join the program.
You need a jailbroken device. In my side, i recommend to jailbreak it. Besides this, it has a lot of cool and useful things to add.
Instructions for Appsync (needed to run the apps in a iDevice)
To install self signed ipa on iOS 3.1/3.2/4.x/5.x/6.x/7 devices,
Instructions for making the apps and run them in your iDevice:
On Mac OS X, go to Keychain Access -> Certificate Assistant -> Create a Certificate. It opens the certificate assistant window. Enter name (in my case it is securitylearn.net) and select certificate type as Code signing. Check let me override defaults option. Hit continue until it creates the certificate.
6.0 If you want to run it direct to your device, connect your jailbroken device with Appsync Installed and then next to "Run"Button select your device's name. (If you choosed this option this is the end of the tutorial)
6.1 If you want a .ipa file Select iOS Device, and follow the instructions below
Default location for .app file is - /Users/[user name]/Library/Developer/Xcode/DerivedData/[your app]/Build/Products/Debug-iphoneos/
For a more detailed instructions with images visit Securitylearn post