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I've got a Mac Pro (Jan-2008) 2.8GHz Quad-core Xeon with one processor. Do all the Mac Pro's have the two sockets motherboards even if it's purchased with one processor? If so can I purchase an equivalent Intel Xeon proc and install it to have the 8-core?

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No, single processor Mac Pros ship with a single socket motherboard, and use Xeon 3000 series processors, not the more expensive Xeon 5000 series needed for dual socket support.

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For my unit Mac Pro (Early 2008) the specs show 5400 series Xeon on Apples website – jdiaz Aug 17 '10 at 22:32
Ah, sorry. The answer is "maybe." The first units for that revision were shipped with fully populated sockets and 5400s, and you could upgrade them. It would not be shocking if later in the year they removed the socket and/or downrated the power supply to save costs. If your system has the socket and an appropriate power supply you need to get a Xeon with same stepping as the one in your machine (within a single processor model there are several different revisions, called steppings, you generally want to match steppings for SMP, or you might experience random errors), and an Apple heat sink. – Louis Gerbarg Aug 17 '10 at 23:15

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