Short answer is no. There is nothing special you can do on iPhone's Safari to access a file on your desktop - not even using the USB cable.
That's the on topic answer, to this website. That being said...
Your best bet is connecting through wifi. Supposedly you could also use bluetooth or even USB, but for both you would sure need to jailbreak and I wouldn't bother even trying because I suppose any of them would be quite troublesome because most developers wouldn't bother doing something in those lines and because none of the two are meant to give direct access files remotely - just for copying over.
If you don't have a web server, grab any from other answers, such as XAMPP (my favorite), Annyong or even using Python, and make sure it's running on the desktop through your own desktop web browser pointing to url http://127.0.0.1 or simply localhost, which is a shortcut.
Then make sure your iPhone is on the same network and point your Safari to your computer's IP. Doesn't matter your desktop doesn't have wifi. For instance, if they're connected to the same router, by default they'll have similar IPs and same mask which will allow them to see each other on that same Local Area Network.