I recently installed a 3 TB drive in a drive bay of my 2008 Mac Pro. When I rebooted it was not recognised and required formatting. However Disk Utility formatted it as a “Logical Volume Group”. I could not set the partition and GUID option and it was not showing the full capacity of the drive.
I Googled the issue and found that 10.8.4 and 10.8.5 have a bug which was causing this problem to occur with drives of 3 TB and greater capacity. The solution was to boot from an earlier version of OS X. I booted from a Snow Leopard boot drive which I keep on a USB Flash Drive and used Disk Utility to successfully re-format and partition the 3 TB drive. I am not sure whether the bug is still present in Mavericks.
I was running 10.8.5 when I encountered the problem I described above - drive not recognised but Disk Utility did offer to format it. However the normal format options were not available with "Logical Volume Group" being the only option.
I did not have a boot volume pre 10.8.4 but did have a Snow Leopard boot volume. When I restarted my Mac Pro with this Snow Leopard volume I was able to use Disk Utility to set the drive to one partition and GUID format. When I rebooted into 10.8.5 the drive was recognised as a normal volume and I have been using it for my Time Machine backup ever since.
While you mention that your problem is that Disk Utility does not see your drive, if you are running 10.8.4 or later it may still be worth trying an earlier version of the OS.