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I'm new to Linux. How can I copy a file or directory from the Debian OS to Mac or Windows?

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You can share filesystems across these platforms but this requires some basic network/sharing configuration on all involved systems.

Sharing via Filesystems

On OS X you can enable File Sharing in System Preferences -> Sharing

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By default only AFP sharing is enabled which may not be available in a standard Linux setup (and definitively is not available on Windows). To also enable Samba/Windows sharing, click on "Options..." and enable Samba sharing there.

Sharing via Syncing solution

An alternative and rather easy approach would be to install either Dropbox or BitTorrent Sync on all systems and use this to copy data over.

Copying with scp

In case you only want to copy some files you might also be able to use scp to copy files from/to a remote system over a network. Basic syntax is

scp local-file remote-user@remote-host:

and you will be prompted to enter the password of remote-user.

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